restaurant/bar, theatre, concert/performance space
Sir Edward M. Barry, 1858
Covent Garden, Bow Street , WC2E 9DD
Home to The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, the ROH was reconfigured in 2018 by Stanton Williams to offer world-class performance spaces and a welcoming and inclusive cultural and social hub.
Holborn, Leicester Square, Covent Garden
Covent Garden (Piccadilly line) is the nearest tube station. Leicester Square (Northern/Piccadilly lines) and Holborn (Central and Piccadilly lines) are short walks away. Bus routes 1, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 23, 26, 68, 76, 87, 91, 168, 171, 176, 188, 501 (southbound only), 505, 521 and X68 all go to Aldwych. The nearest NCP carparks are five minutes’ walk away at Drury Lane and Shelton Street.
The magnificent Royal Opera House, with its grand classical portico fronting Bow Street, is actually the third theatre built on the Covent Garden site. Both the previous theatres were destroyed by fire, a serious hazard in the era before electricity.
Actor-manager John Rich built the first Theatre Royal, Covent Garden with the fortune he had made from the huge success of The Beggar’s Opera. At that time, under the terms of a Royal Patent, Covent Garden was only one of two theatres permitted to perform drama in the capital. The other patent theatre was the nearby Theatre Royal Drury Lane, and a keen rivalry soon developed between the venues.
The first important musical works to be heard at the theatre were by Handel, who, from 1735 until his death in 1759, had close links with Covent Garden both as composer and organist. Many of his operas and oratorios, including Alcina and Semele, were first performed there, and he bequeathed his theatre organ to John Rich. Extensive rebuilding work took place in 1787 and 1792, but in 1808 the theatre was completely destroyed by fire, with the loss of twenty-three fireman as the building collapsed.
Work on a new theatre began immediately to designs by Robert Smirke. The Prince of Wales laid the foundation stone on the last day of 1808 and the theatre opened just over eight months later with a performance of Shakespeare’s Macbeth starring renowned brother and sister John Philip Kemble and Sarah Siddons. To help recoup the cost of the build, the management (including Kemble and Siddons) raised seat prices, a decision that proved so unpopular that audiences kept rioting until the old prices were restored.
In 1843, the Theatres Act ended the patent theatres’ monopoly of drama and the competition for audiences intensified. Three years later, Covent Garden scored a notable coup when the gifted composer and conductor Michael Costa joined the theatre from Her Majesty’s in the Haymarket, bringing most of his company of singers with him. Following the remodelling of the auditorium, the theatre reopened as the Royal Italian Opera in April 1847 with a performance of Rossini’s Semiramide.
On 5 March 1856 disaster struck again. For the second time, the theatre was completely destroyed by fire. Work on the third and present theatre eventually started in 1857 to designs by E.M. Barry and the new building opened in May 1858 with a performance of Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots. Barry also designed the striking glass and iron Floral Hall, intended as a flower market but also hosting the occasional ball.
In 1892, with the repertoire broadening, the theatre was renamed the Royal Opera House. Winter and summer seasons of opera and ballet were given, and between seasons the theatre was either closed or used for film shows, dancing, cabaret and lectures. During the Great War the theatre became a furniture repository and during the Second World War, it functioned as a Mecca Dance Hall. That’s how it might have remained if the music publishers Boosey and Hawkes hadn’t acquired the lease. David Webster was appointed General Administrator and the Sadler’s Wells Ballet, under Ninette de Valois, was invited to become the resident ballet company.
The Opera House reopened on 20 February 1946 with a gala performance of The Sleeping Beauty starring Margot Fonteyn. With no suitable opera company able to take up residence, Webster and music director Karl Rankl began to build a company from scratch. In December 1946, Covent Garden Opera teamed up with the ballet in a production of Purcell’s The Fairy Queen choreographed by Frederick Ashton; the following January saw the company’s first performance of Carmen. Both companies were eventually awarded Royal Charters: The Royal Ballet in 1956; The Royal Opera in 1968.
By the 1980s, it was pretty clear that the facilities at the Royal Opera House were inadequate for carrying the two companies forward into the 21st century. Plans for a major development of the theatre were revealed in 1984, with the architect Jeremy Dixon, in collaboration with Bill Jack of Building Design Partnership (BDP), winning the competition to design the project. However, it was only after the creation of the National Lottery that the Opera House was awarded £58.5m towards re-building costs. Work started in 1996 with a farewell gala taking place in the ‘old’ house in July 1997.
Three years later, at total cost of £178m, the theatre had been utterly transformed. Brand new technical and rehearsal facilities were built; a smaller auditorium, the Linbury Studio, was created for smaller and more experimental productions, and the existing auditorium and foyers were fully refurbished. As well as all this, the virtually derelict Floral Hall was completely rebuilt and turned into a thrilling public arena, with bars and eating spaces in spectacular surroundings. Above all, the creation of new spaces has integrated the theatre more fully into its surrounding environment and made visiting a far more enjoyable experience.
The Open Up project designed by architects Stanton Williams aims to enhance the experience of coming to the Royal Opera House, for audiences, artists and guest companies.
A new espresso bar, improved facilities, an enlarged retail space, a fully refurbished Linbury Theatre and a public programme of learning and engagement events targeted at a wide range of people, all make up the plan to encourage visitors to spend more time in the building.
Tours run across the weekend (9-10 September) and last 30 minutes each. They explore the architecture of our world-famous building and its transformation over the centuries – and reveal how the historic and the contemporary connect seamlessly to create an epic urban set piece, the experience of which is as exhilarating as the action taking place on and off-stage. Please note that these tours do not enter the auditorium, but do enter the Royal Retiring Room, which is normally closed to the public.
Over the weekend (9-10th September), visitors are also welcome to explore the Royal Opera House’s Front of House spaces, and make use of an exclusive 10% discount in the Shop (if ‘Open House’ is quoted at the till) and a 10% discount on food and drink in the Piazza restaurant or Café. Future tours can be booked for just £15 if tickets are purchased in person over the weekend.
The tour charts the evolution of Covent Garden-incorporating the piazza, the wholesale produce market, social residential areas and supporting neighbourhoods - highlighting the social and commercial highs, lows and challenges.
institution/profession, library, museum
The current building, the third on the site, was built between 1927-1933 in the Art Deco style, as a memorial to the 3,225 Freemasons who died in World War I. It is a Grade II* listed building, both internally and externally.
Henry Victor Ashley and F. Winton Newman, 1927
The creation of new public realm along Strand, south of Aldwych, has been described as the one of the best things to happen to London in years. It is an exemplar of what's possible when road space is reclaimed for people and for nature.
LDA Design - Landscape Architect, 2022
historical house, institution/profession
A very good example of Georgian/Adam architecture. Restoration 2012 of Great Room (James Barry paintings), Benjamin Franklin room. 2019, restoration and installation of 1754-2018 mural in the new Long Gallery.
Adam Brothers, 1774
religious, mixed use
Three centuries of Quakers in Westminster. Opened in 1883, with front doors added in the 1920s. It was bomb-damaged in 1941 and rebuilt in 1956. Grade II listed registered place of worship, it contains a peaceful meeting room and 1950s wood panelling and fittings.
W. W. Lee and J. A. Tregelles, 1883
A large multi-purpose building occupying a pivotal position at the southern corner of Lincoln’s Inn Fields. The building provides state of the art, flexible teaching spaces on the lower levels and faculty accommodation on the upper levels.
Grafton Architects, 2021
Built in a Renaissance style with high level Diocletian windows and a prominent grand cupola. In 2016 a new Fly Tower opened followed by remodelling of the auditorium in 2018 and the creation of a new basement space opening in the Autumn.
Bennetts Associates, 2022
Ever since the United States gained independence, Americans have been showing up again and again. This tour is about their influence on the UK from before the Revolutionary War to American heiresses marrying for titles to WWII to today.
Former US Embassy - Eero Saarinen, 1960
Drop in / Guided tour
The first purpose-built new-build community centre to be built in the heart of Soho for generations, located within the renowned Phoenix Gardens. Winner: RIBA London Award. Designed by RIBA London Architect of the Year Winner.
Office Sian Architecture + Design, 2018
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